POLS 625

Exam 3 Review Sheet

Last Updated: 12/14/15


This review is intended to give you a general idea of what may appear on the exam.The exam will cover material from the assigned readings and material that was presented in the lecture.

1. A brief overview of the overall research process in political science

Specifying research questions

Literature review

2. Quantitative and qualitative studies

3. Improving research questions

1. A research project should pose a question that is ďimportantĒ in the real world

2. A research project should make a specific contribution to an identifiable scholarly literature

4. Deduction and induction

5. Characteristics of good hypotheses

6. Determining What to Avoid

Indeterminate research designs

††††††††††††††††††††††† More inferences than observations

††††††††††† Multicollinearity

Selection bias

Intentional selection of observations

††††††††††† Measurement error

††††††††††††††††††††††† Systematic measurement error and nonsystematic measurement error

††††††††††† Excluding relevant variables: Bias

††††††††††† Including irrelevant variables: Inefficiency


7. Types of Data

††††††††††† Cross-sectional, time series, panel (cross-sectional time-series)††††

8. Isolating the impact of main independent variable

Experimental studies

††††††††††††††††††††††† Laboratory and field experiments

Observational Studies

Natural experiments and controlled comparison

9. Five phases of our paper

10. The normal curve

††††† A. Positive and negative skew

††††† B. Z scores

††††† C. Finding areas under the normal curve

††††††††††† Area between the mean and a Z score

††††††††††† Area beyond a Z score

††††††††††† Area between two Z scores

11. Univariate Statistics

†††† A. Frequency table

††††††††††† Know how to create a frequency table manually (frequency, %, cumulative frequency, cumulative %)

†††† B. Measure of central tendency

††††††††††† Mean, median, mode

†††† C. Measures of dispersion

††††††††††† Range, variance, standard deviation

12. Test of Significance

††††††††††† One sample case- z

††††††††††† One sample case- t

†††† †††††† Chi square test

††††††††††† T-test for Pearsonís correlation coefficient

13. Measures of Association

†††† A. Nominal and ordinal variables


††††††††††† Know how to produce a cross-tabulation manually

††††††††††† Know how to read a cross-tabulation (both bivariate and multivariate)††

††††††††††† Know how to control for a third variable (Nominal and ordinal variables only)

††††† Tests of statistical significance and measures of association

††††††††††† Know how to write a hypothesis

††††††††††† Know how to test a hypothesis

††††††††††††††††††††††† Statistical significance

††††††††††††††††††††††† Strength of association

††††††††††††††††††††††† Direction of association

††††††††††††††††††††††† Substantive interpretation

††††† Bivariate association

††††††††††††††††††††††† Lambda (Computation), Cramerís V, Somerís d

††††† Controlling for a third variable

††††††††††††††††††††††† Lambda, Cramerís V, Somerís d

†† B. I/R variables ††††††

†† Pearsonís r (Computation including testing a hypothesis)

†† Bivariate and multiple regression analysis

   Manual calculation of the predicted values. (Bonus points: 3 points)

   Manual calculation of the slope and intercept coefficients (Bonus points: 3 points)

14. SPSS and Excel

15. Interpretation of regression results table (Bonus points: 3 points)


Table 1:  The Impact of GDP Per Capita on Turnout


Unstandardized coefficients

GDP per cap ($1000)



Gini coefficient



Compulsory voting






Adj R2




Note: Standard errors are in parentheses. **: p<.01, *: p<.05

16. The following formulae will be provided.


Standard Deviation



††††††††††† Area under the normal curve

††††††††††† Z:



††††††††††† Hypothesis Testing


††††††††††† Z:



††††††††††† t:



††††††††††† Chi square:








 Pearsonís r




17. The z, t, and chi square tables and the following table will be provided.


Measurement Types


Two nominal variables

Lambda/Cramerís V

Two ordinal variables


Somerís d

I/R variables

(Pearsonís corr. Coeff)