Last Updated: 12/14/15
This review is intended to give you a general idea of what may appear on the exam. The exam will cover material from the assigned readings and material that was presented in the lecture.
1. A brief overview of the overall research process in political science
Specifying research questions
Literature review
2. Quantitative and qualitative studies
3. Improving research questions
1. A research project should pose a question that is “important” in the real world
2. A research
project should make a specific contribution to an identifiable scholarly
literature
4. Deduction and induction
5. Characteristics of good hypotheses
6. Determining What to Avoid
Indeterminate research
designs
More
inferences than observations
Multicollinearity
Selection bias
Intentional selection of
observations
Measurement
error
Systematic
measurement error and nonsystematic measurement error
Excluding
relevant variables: Bias
Including
irrelevant variables: Inefficiency
Endogeneity
7. Types of Data
Crosssectional,
time series, panel (crosssectional timeseries)
8. Isolating the impact of main independent variable
Experimental studies
Laboratory
and field experiments
Observational Studies
Natural experiments
and controlled comparison
9. Five phases of our paper
10. The normal curve
A. Positive and negative skew
B. Z scores
C. Finding areas under the normal curve
Area between the mean and a Z score
Area beyond a Z score
Area between two Z scores
11. Univariate Statistics
A.
Frequency table
Know
how to create a frequency table manually (frequency, %, cumulative frequency,
cumulative %)
B.
Measure of central tendency
Mean,
median, mode
C.
Measures of dispersion
Range,
variance, standard deviation
12. Test of Significance
One
sample case z
One
sample case t
Chi square test
Ttest
for Pearson’s correlation coefficient
13. Measures of Association
A.
Nominal and ordinal variables
Crosstabs
Know how to produce a crosstabulation manually
Know how to read a crosstabulation (both bivariate and multivariate)
Know how to control for a third variable (Nominal and ordinal variables only)
Tests of statistical significance and measures of association
Know
how to write a hypothesis
Know
how to test a hypothesis
Statistical significance
Strength of association
Direction of association
Substantive interpretation
Bivariate association
Lambda (Computation), Cramer’s V, Somer’s d
Controlling for a third variable
Lambda, Cramer’s V, Somer’s d
B. I/R
variables
Pearson’s r (Computation
including testing a hypothesis)
Bivariate and multiple regression analysis
Manual calculation of the predicted values. (Bonus points: 3 points)
Manual calculation of the slope and intercept coefficients (Bonus points: 3 points)
14. SPSS and Excel
15.
e.g
Table 1: The Impact of GDP Per Capita on Turnout
Variables 
Unstandardized coefficients 
GDP per cap ($1000) 
.334 (.430) 
Gini coefficient 
.573** (.214) 
Compulsory voting 
9.451* (4.538) 
Constant 
82.323 (10.321) 
Adj R^{2} 
.092 
N 
76 
Note: Standard errors are in parentheses. **: p<.01, *: p<.05
16. The following formulae will be provided.
Standard Deviation
_{ }
Area
under the normal curve
Z:
Hypothesis
Testing
Z:
t:
DF=(n1)
Chi
square:
DF=(c1)(r1)
Lambda:
_{}
_{}
17. The z, t, and chi square tables and the following
table will be provided.
Measurement Types 
Statistics 
Two nominal variables 
Lambda/Cramer’s V 
Two ordinal variables 
Somer’s d 
I/R variables 
(Pearson’s corr. Coeff) 
