Last Updated: Nov 21, 2014

This review is
intended to give you a general idea of what may appear on the exam. The exam
will cover material from the assigned readings and material that was presented
in the lecture.

I. Determining What to Avoid

Indeterminate research
designs

More
inferences than observations

Multicollinearity

Selection bias

Intentional selection of
observations

Measurement
error

Systematic
measurement error and nonsystematic measurement error

Excluding
relevant variables: Bias

Including
irrelevant variables: Inefficiency

Endogeneity

II. Types of Data

Cross-sectional,
time series, panel (cross-sectional time-series)

III. Test of Significance

One
sample case- z (computation)

One
sample case- t (computation, SPSS)

Chi square test (computation, SPSS)

t-test for Pearson’s correlation (computation)

III. Measures of Association

A. Nominal and ordinal variables

Crosstabs

Know how to produce a cross-tabulation manually

Know how to read a cross-tabulation (both bivariate and multivariate)

Know how to control for a third variable (Nominal and ordinal variables only)

Tests of statistical significance and measures of association (SPSS)

Know
how to write a hypothesis

Know
how to test a hypothesis

Statistical significance

Strength of association

Know how to calculate Lambda manually

Direction of association

Substantive interpretation

Bivariate association

Lambda, Cramer’s V, Somer’s d (SPSS, interpretation)

Controlling for a third variable (where the third variable is a nominal or ordinal variable)

Lambda, Cramer’s V, Somer’s d (SPSS, interpretation)

B. I/R variables

Pearson’s
r (Computation including testing a hypothesis, Excel, SPSS,
interpretation)

Bivariate
regression (Manually computing intercept and slope, Excel, SPSS, interpretation)

Multiple regression
(SPSS, interpretation)

IV. Five Phases of Research Paper

**The following formulae
and tables will be provided.**

I. Formulae

**Z:**

_{}

**t****:**

_{}

**Chi square:**

_{}

df=(r-1)(c-1)

**Lambda:**

**
Pearson's r**

**Regression (Bonus
points for manual calculation)**

II. The z, t, and chi square tables and the summary
table below

Levels of Measurement |
Measures of Association |

Two nominal variables |
Lambda/Cramer’s V |

Two ordinal variables |
Somer’s d |

I/R variables |
Pearson’s correlation |