Review 1

Measures of Association and Test of Statistical Significance

 

Q1. Using the results below, analyze the relationship between age and political outlook.

Make sure to discuss the following:

Directional hypothesis

Null hypothesis

Substantive interpretation

Strength and direction

Significance and confidence level

Conclusion

Political Outlook * Age Categories Crosstabulation

 

Age Categories

Total

18-29

30-39

40-49

50+

Political Outlook

Liberal

14.4%

12.2%

17.3%

11.4%

13.4%

Tend Lib

16.6%

16.9%

12.5%

9.8%

13.4%

Moderate

37.2%

37.9%

38.0%

34.5%

36.5%

Tend Cons

17.7%

19.2%

16.6%

15.9%

17.2%

Conservative

14.1%

13.7%

15.6%

28.4%

19.5%

Total

100.0%

(277)

100.0%

(343)

100.0%

(295)

100.0%

(528)

100.0%

(1443)

Directional Measures

 

 

Value

Asymptotic Standardized Errora

Approximate Tb

Approximate Significance

 

 

Somers' d

Symmetric

.105

.022

4.836

.000

 

Political Outlook Dependent

.108

.022

4.836

.000

 

Age Categories Dependent

.103

.021

4.836

.000

 

 

Q2. Does you conclusion based on the bivariate analysis above change, when College Degree is added to the model?

Political Outlook * Age Categories * College Degree Crosstabulation

College Degree

Age Categories

Total

18-29

30-39

40-49

50+

No College degree

Political Outlook

Liberal

13.1%

12.2%

13.1%

9.9%

11.7%

Tend Lib

15.3%

15.1%

10.3%

10.4%

12.4%

Moderate

41.9%

43.7%

44.6%

36.2%

40.6%

Tend Cons

15.8%

17.2%

16.4%

16.2%

16.4%

Conservative

14.0%

11.8%

15.5%

27.3%

18.9%

Total

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

College degree

Political Outlook

Liberal

20.0%

12.5%

28.0%

17.5%

18.9%

Tend Lib

21.8%

21.2%

18.3%

7.8%

16.6%

Moderate

18.2%

24.0%

20.7%

27.2%

23.3%

Tend Cons

25.5%

24.0%

17.1%

14.6%

19.8%

Conservative

14.5%

18.3%

15.9%

33.0%

21.5%

Total

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

100.0%

 

Directional Measures

College Degree

Value

Asymptotic Standardized Errora

Approximate Tb

Approximate Significance

No College degree

 

Somers' d

Symmetric

.116

.025

4.601

.000

Political Outlook Dependent

.118

.026

4.601

.000

Age Categories Dependent

.115

.025

4.601

.000

College degree

 

Somers' d

Symmetric

.066

.045

1.484

.138

Political Outlook Dependent

.069

.047

1.484

.138

Age Categories Dependent

.064

.043

1.484

.138

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.