Spring 08

Exam 1 Review

Last updated: February 4, 2008


Ch1 Public Opinion in Democratic Societies

Public opinion and government

            How much should the government respond to the public?

                        Hamilton, Lippmann, Gallup, Blumer, Almond

Definition of public opinion

The evolution of the public opinion poll

            Straw polls, Literary Digest, Gallup

The modern opinion poll and its consequences

Linkage models between public opinion and public policies

            Rational-activist, Political parties, interest group, delegate, sharing


Ch 2 Polling: The Scientific Assessment of Public Opinion


            Probability sampling, random sampling, multistage cluster sampling, random-digit dialing

            Sample size, confidence level, margin of error (sampling error)

Question Wording

Response categories

Context/Framing effects

The misuse of surveys

Polls and predicting elections

            Table 2.2


Ch 3 Microlevel opinion: The psychology of opinion-holding

Democratic theory


            Table 3.1

Consistency/stability of opinion-holding

            Table 3.3

            Nonattitudes explanation, measurement error explanation

Ideological sophistication

            Ideologues, near ideologues, group benefits, nature of the time, no issue content

            Table 3.9

Party identification

            Table 3.12      


Ch 4 Macrolevel opinion

Civil Rights

            Old-fashioned and symbolic racism

            Figure 4.2

Foreign policy

            Figure 4.4

Social issues

            Figure 4.5

Ideological movement

            Table 4.4

Partisan movement

            Realignment (1960s and 1970s)


                        Figure 4.7

Presidential Approval

            Figure 4.8

            Explanations   1. Honeymoon period

                                    2. Rally-Round-the Flag


                                                international convention


                                                social desirability

                                                short term effects

                                    3. Economy

                                                Pocket-book vs socio-tropic


Ch 5 Political Socialization and Political Learning

Preadult years

            Table 5.1

Agents of political socialization

            Family, school, peer groups

            Table 5.5

            Table 5.6


Socialization during adulthood

            Generation, life cycle and party identification

            Figure 5.2



Ch 6 Public Opinion and Democratic Stability

Support for democratic values

            Table 6.1, Table 6.2, Table 6.3, Table 6.4, Figure 6.1

            Theory of democratic elitism

            Pluralistic intolerance

Political consensus

Political support: Trust and efficacy

            Government (political) trust

                        Figure 6.2

            Social trust (social capital)


            Authoritarian personality

            F scale

            Milgram experiment 


Ch 7 Group Differences in Political Opinions

Class differences on economic and noneconomic issues

            Table 7.1, Figure 7.1, Table 7.3, Table 7.4

Class differences in voting and party preference

            Figure 7.2

Race and political opinions

            Tables on p201, Table 7.6, Table on p204, Table on p205, Figure 7.4

Age and Political opinions

            Table 7.7

Religion and political opinions

            Table on p209, Table 7.8, Tables on p212, Table 7.9

Geography and political opinions

            Table 7.10, Figure 7.6

Gender and political opinions

            Table 7.11


Ch 8 The News Media and Political Opinions

The fragmentation of the media

            Table 8.1

Bias and negativity in the news

            Liberal journalists

                        Table 8.2

            Conservative ownership

            Negativity in the news

Models of media effects

            The minimal effects model

            Agenda setting

            Framing issues


Ch 9 Elections as Instruments of popular control

Party ID

            Normal vote

            Figure 9.1, Figure 9.2

            Floating voters

            Table 9.1

Policy issues

            Table 9.2, Table 9.3, Table 9.4

Candidate evaluations

            Table on p282

            Figure 9.6

            Median voter theorem

            Table 9.8

Prediction and causation


Ch 10 The Public and Its Elected Representatives

Sharing model

            Simple sharing model

            How do political leaders differ from the public?

                        Table 10.1, Table 10.2

Political parties model

            Figure 10.1

            Table 10.5, Explanation of split ticket voting

            How do politicians vote?

                        Figure 10.2

                        Table online (Party votes in the House)

            Does party control matter?

Role playing model

            Trustees vs delegates

            Kuklinski (1978) Study of California legislators


Ch 11 Public Opinion and the Performance of Democracy

Assessing the impact of public opinion on policy

            Table 11.1, Figure 11.1, Figure 11.2

            Causal connection

Public apathy

            Mass political incompetence

                        Irony of democracy

            Rational disengagement

            Elite manipulation

            Public contentment