Tests of Statistical Significance and Measures of Association

  1. Formulate a hypothesis
  2. Run appropriate stats.
  3. Answer whether or not the results support the hypothesis
    1. Check statistical significance
    2. Check strength and direction
    3. Provide a substantive interpretation

4.†† Add some control variables to the model. Answer whether or not the original association remains the same.

 

Measurement Types

 

Statistics

Range

Strength

Significance level

Two nominal variables

 

Lambda

/Cramerís V

0 ~ +1

~0.1:†††††††† Weak

0.1~0.19:Moderate

0.20~0.29: Moderately strong

0.30~:††††††† Strong

Prob<.05 means significant (95% confidence) Reject the null

Two ordinal variables

 

Somersíd

-1 ~ +1

Two I/R variablesR

Pearsonís corr. coeff and regression

 

 

 

-1 ~ +1 for corr. coeff

~0.25:††††††† Little to very weak

0.25~0.34: Weak

0.35~0.39: Moderate

0.40~:††††††† Strong (p244)

* : p<0.05 (95% confidence)

**: p<0.01 (99% confidence)

Reject the null