**Completing Phase 4b and
Producing Final Paper**

**Phase 4b Test Results**

Interpret the results that you prepared for Phase 4b.

It is required to include the tables and figures in your paper.

Make sure to label each table and figure. (e.g. Table 1: Regression Results for...)

*Points will be deducted for any wrong or redundant tables.

*It is fine to report that your main hypothesis is not supported. The point of the exercise here is that you learn to report the results accurately.

Go to either Section A or Section B to complete Phase 4b.

**For**** Nominal/Ordinal
Dependent Variable**

*Bivariate** Analysis*

1) Do the results support the main hypothesis? Make sure to discuss the following (Do not forget to insert the output table.):

a. Is the association statistically significant? (Read the significance level)

b. What is your interpretation of the measure of association? (Choose either Cramer's V or Somer's d. Pay attention to the levels of measurement.)

-Discuss the strength of association.

-Discuss the direction of association.

c. Interpret the results substantively by using the column percentages.

3) Repeat the above for the alternative hypotheses (Both Rival 1 and 2)

*Multivariate Analysis*

1) Do the results support the main hypothesis after controlling for another variable? (As you know from Prep Phase 4b, you can treat one of the variables in your rival hypothesis as a control variable). Do not forget to insert the output table. Make sure to discuss the following:

a. Statistical significance after controlling for another variable.

b. The measure of association

Discuss the strength of association.

Discuss the direction of association.

c. Interpret the results substantively by using percentages.

Note: -It is not necessary to repeat the above for the other control variable.

**For Interval Dependent
Variable **

*Bivariate** Analysis*

A) Interpret the scatterplot that you have already created for Y and X1. What kind of relationship do you expect from the scatterplot? In other words, what kind of impression do you get from the scatterplot? (Do not forget to insert the figure.)

B) Interpret the measure of association that you produced for Prep Phase 4b. (You have produced Pearson's r, since your dependent variable is interval. Do not forget to insert the table.) Does the table support your main hypothesis?

a. Discuss the strength and direction of association and significance.

C) Run a bivariate regression model. (Do
not forget to insert the tables that include the slope coefficient and R^{2}.) Do the results support the main hypothesis?
Make sure to discuss the following:

a. What is the significance level? Is the association statistically significant?

b. What is your interpretation of the slope coefficient? Read it substantively.

c.
Interpret the adjusted R^{2}.

3) Repeat A)-D) for the alternative hypotheses (Rival 1, 2)

*Multivariate Statistics*

4) Do the results support the main hypothesis after controlling for the other two variables? Use the results from Prep Phase 4b and discuss the following (Here, you are required to include the two variables that are treated as the independent variables in the rival hypotheses. Do not forget to insert the tables for the results.):

a. Is the main independent variable statistically significant after adding the control variables?

b. What is your interpretation of the slope coefficient for the main independent variable?

c. What is the direction of association for the main independent variable?

d.
Interpret the adjusted R^{2}.

e. What are your interpretations of the control variables?

5) Do not forget to insert the output tables. (If you want to make your tables more professional, follow the example below.)

6) What do the results from the bivariate and multivariate sections suggest?

Table 1: The Impact of GDP Per Capita on Turnout

Variables |
Unstandardized coefficients |

GDP per cap ($1000) |
.334 (.430) |

Gini coefficient |
-.573** (.214) |

Compulsory voting |
9.451* (4.538) |

Constant |
82.323 (10.321) |

Adj
R |
.092 |

N |
76 |

Note: Standard errors are in parentheses. **: p<.01, *: p<.05

Note:

1. Make sure that the numbers in each table are lined up correctly.

2. Phase 4b should be about 3-6 pages using 12 point font
(Use either Times New Roman or Arial). Do not adjust margin sizes.

3. Save your work in disks (Make sure to have multiple backups). You will be responsible for a lost file or any other computer issues.

4. Make sure to write in paragraph format.

**Phase 5. Conclusion**

In the conclusion you should discuss your findings and whether your original hypothesis is supported by your analysis. Are you convinced that your main hypothesis is correct? Looking back on your expectations, does your theory or hypothesis need to be revised? Explain. How did the alternative rival hypothesis fair? Is your model missing any potential independent variables? Are there any policy implications? The conclusion should be at least one double-spaced page.

**Final Product**

A. Put together all the parts from the previous phases. Integrate the parts so that it flows like a complete paper. Make sure to delete the word “phase” and replace it with a subheading.

e.g.

Phase 1 – Introduction

Phase 2 – Theory and hypotheses

Phase 3 – Operationalization

Phase 4a – Description of data

Phase 4b – Test results

Phase 5 – Conclusion

The following should be included in the correct order:

Final Paper (Staple)

Title page

Introduction

Theory and Hypotheses

Methods/Operationalization

Descriptive Statistics

Test Results

Conclusion

Bibliography

Make sure to include

e.g. According to Figure 1...

Table 2 shows...

B. Revisions

a. Include any revisions if you received comments on earlier phases.

b. Make sure that your paper reads well. Eliminate or revise any redundant or repetitive statements. Improve and edit your writing.

c. Include a title page that specifies the name of the research project, your name and section number. You should also number the pages.

d. Write in paragraph format.

e. Overall, present your paper professionally.

f. Print out your final paper and turn it into the instructor. Staple your final paper together (Do not use a binder). If you cannot complete them during the lab hours, bring it to the department's main office. (The main office may close several minutes before 5pm.) Do not email your paper. Save your file and deposit the submitted version in Blackboard. (The instructor will only grade your hard copy.)