**Phase 4a Descriptive
(Univariate) Statistics**

1. Descriptive Statistics

A. Nominal or ordinal variables

a) Use the frequency tables that you created for Phase4a Prep and describe them. Describe the tables with percentages. Do not forget to insert the tables. Make sure to label the tables. Use the labels to refer to the tables.

e.g.

Table 1: Frequency Table for Gender

b). Describe the variable with central tendency (i.e. median for an ordinal variable, mode for a nominal variable) and variability (i.e. range for nominal and ordinal) measures.

c). Please indicate whether there are a large number of missing cases. (IAP: Respondent was not asked the question. Even when you see a large number for IAP, it usually does not bias the results, since GSS or NES randomly selected these respondents (i.e. no systematic error). DK: Don't know. NA: No answer. Refused to answer.) You are also required to discuss whether or not there is enough variation within each variable. For example, if all the respondents are females, there are no variation in gender. This makes statistical analysis impossible. If one category contains 95% of the cases, there is also considered to have little variation. Discuss whether or not any of these factors may bias your findings.

B. Interval/ratio variables

a) Us the histograms that you created for Phase 4a Prep and describe the distributions. Discuss whether or not the variables are skewed. Do not forget to insert the figures. Make sure to label the figures. Use the labels to refer to the figures.

e.g.

Figure 1: Histogram for Age

b). Describe the variables with central tendency (i.e. mean for an interval variable) and variability (i.e. standard deviation for an interval variable) measures. (If the variable is skewed, include the median in your discussion.)

c). Please indicate whether there are a large number of missing cases. You are also required to discuss whether or not there is enough variation within each variable. (When your variables are interval, there is usually enough variation.) Discuss whether or not any of these factors may bias your findings.

*Do not include any redundant, unnecessary, or wrong SPSS output.

-Save your file and deposit the submitted version in Blackboard.

-Make sure to describe four variables (Y, X1, X2, and X3).

-You can only use a single dataset.

-You are not testing your hypotheses in this phase. You are only describing each variable separately. (i.e. Neither crosstabs nor correlation statistics are not acceptable.)

-Make sure to write in paragraph format.

-Make sure that the numbers in each table are lined up
correctly.

Note:

1. Phase 4a should be about 2-5 pages using 12 point font (Use either Times New Roman or Arial). Do not adjust margin sizes.

2. Save your work and make sure to have multiple backups. You will be responsible for a lost disk.

3. At the end of the semester, you will turn in your paper by combining and revising the phases.

4. Please do not send your assignments using e-mail.

5. Please do not forget to include your name and section number.

6. Overall, present your paper professionally.