Exam 1 Review

Exercise 1

Units of Analysis, Levels of Measurement, and Types of Variables

 

Exercise Questions

 

Q1. Below are some items from a public-opinion survey. For each item, indicate the level of measurement.

 

    a. What is your occupation?

    b. How many years of school have you completed?

    c. If you were asked to use one of these three names for your social class, which would you say you belonged in?  (1. Upper 2. Middle 3.Working)

    d. What is your age?

    e. In what country were you born?

    f. What is your grade-point average?

    g. What is your major?

    h. The only way to deal with the drug problem is to legalize all drugs. (1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Disagree 4. Strongly disagree)

     i. Respondent's total family income from all sources for 2015. (1. Less than 1000, 2. 1000 to 2999, 3. 3000 to 3999,... 22. 90,000 to 109,999, 23. 110,000 or over)

    j. How many children have you ever had? (Ungrouped)

   

Q2. Answer the following questions using the table below.

 

Country (ID)

Democ_regime

EU

member

Decentralization

Decentralization4

Afghanistan

0

 0

 

 

Albania

1

0

.74

1

Algeria

0

0

 

 

Andorra

1

 0

 

 

Angola

0

0

 

 

Antigua&Barbuda

1

0

 

 

Argentina

1

0

2.40

4

Armenia

1

0

 

 

:

:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q2a. What are the units of analysis?

 

Q2b. For each variable above, indicate the level of measurement.

   

    a. Democ_regime: (0. Not democratic 1. Democratic)

 

    b. EU: EU member state (0. Not member 1. Member)

 

    c. Decentralization: Decentralization scale

 

    d. Decentralization4: Level of decentralization (1. Less decentralizaed 2. 3. 4. More decentralizaed)

 

Q3. Identify the concepts that are involved in the following hypotheses.

   

    a. The more affluent countries are, the more likely they are to have democratic political institutions.

   

    b. Richer countries are more likely to be democratic than poor countries.

 

    c. States with more educated people produce higher turnout than states with less educated people.

 

Q4. Identify the units of analysis, and the independent and the dependent variables in the hypotheses stated in Q3.

 

Q5. For each of research situation below, identify the independent and dependent variables.

 

    a. A highway engineer wonders if a planned increase in speed limit on a heavily traveled local avenue will result in any change in number of accidents.

 

    b. Several states have drastically cut their budgets for mental health care. Will this increase the number of homeless people in these states?

 

    c. A graduate student is studying sexual harassment on college campuses and asks 500 female students if they personally have experienced any such incidents. Each student is asked to estimate the frequency of these incidents as either “often, sometimes, rarely, or never.” The researcher also gathers data on age and major to see if there is any connection between these variables and frequency of sexual harassment.

 

    d. Does tolerance for diversity vary by race, ethnicity, or gender? A sample of white, black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native Americans have been given a survey that measures their interest in and appreciation of cultures and groups other than their own.